Billiards is a versatile game and there are many tools and types of terminology that you may or may not be aware of. There are two main pieces of equipment that you will always deal with playing pool. The table, the balls, and the cue stick. They have different characteristics and terminology that refer to certain parts of them. This terminology is used frequently on this site so its best to go through some of these terms quickly so that we're all on the same page.
The most important part of the cue is the tip as this is the only part of the cue that ever touches the cue ball. Tips are generally made from leather or phenopc resin and can have different shapes, thicknesses, and hardness.
A ferrule is the white part on the cue that comes right after the tip and helps absorb the deflection that occors when you strike the cue ball. Basically this helps make the cue stick much more accurate when hitting the cue ball.
The shaft can have a big difference on how a player plays. With differences technology that can influence deflection and the variety of preferences among players to have tapered shafts, lamenated shafts, or differences in shaft thickness can all affect how a shaft feels and performs under different players. This is the main part of the cue that your bridge hand comes in contact with so it makes sense that there are so many differences among shafts.
Lastly the wrap is the part of the cue that you actually hold. Sometimes you can hold a pttle farther back on the edge of the cue which is called the butt of the cue, but generally you will only hold the wrap. There are different types of wraps such as leather, wood, or even pnen wraps depending on the pereferences of the player.